Ok, so here is a primer, also known as PhD in a blog entry:
A plasmid is an extra-chromosomal DNA molecule separate from the chromosomal DNA which is capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA. In many cases, it is circular and double-stranded. Plasmids usually occur naturally in bacteria
Many bacteria can acquire new genes by taking up DNA molecules (e.g., a plasmid) from their surroundings. The ability to deliberately transform the bacterium E. coli has made possible the cloning of many genes â€” including human genes â€” and the development of the biotechnology industry.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination, a process of physical rearrangement occurring between two strands of DNA. Homologous recombination involves the alignment of similar sequences, a crossover between the aligned DNA strands, and breaking and repair of the DNA to produce an exchange of material between the strands. The process of homologous recombination naturally occurs in organisms and is also utilized as a molecular biology technique for introducing genetic changes into an organism.
Transvection is an epigenetic phenomenon that results from an interaction between an allele on one chromosome and the corresponding allele on the homologous chromosome. Transvection can lead to either gene activation or repression. Formally (see quote from Lewis, below), it can also occur between nonallelic regions of the genome as well as regions of the genome that are not transcribed.
# Four viruses were characterized as A/Wisconsin/67/2005-like, the influenza A (H3) component of the 2007-08 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
# Fourteen viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/10/2007-like. A/Brisbane/10/2007 is a recent antigenic variant which evolved from A/Wisconsin/67/2005-like. A/Brisbane/10/2007-like virus is the recommended influenza A (H3) component for the 2008 Southern Hemisphere vaccine.
# One virus showed somewhat reduced titers with antisera produced against A/Wisconsin/67/2005 and A/Brisbane/10/2007.
BJ5183 EC are electrocompetent (EC) Escherichia coli cells used in the AdEasyâ„¢ system for homologous recombination. Genotype: endA sbcBC recBC galK met thi-1 bioT hsdR (Strr)
The HA gene. It encodes the hemagglutinin. 3 distinct hemagglutinins, H1, H2, and H3) are found in human infections; 13 others have been found in animal flu viruses.
2. The NA gene. It encodes the neuraminidase. 2 different neuraminidases (N1 and N2) have been found in human viruses; 7 others in other animals.
lyophilized – used of tissue or blood or serum or other biological substances; dried by freezing in a high vacuum
master cell bank
a culture of fully characterized cells processed together to ensure uniformity and stability and used to prepare the working cell banks for production.
An important area of the application is extraction and purification of biologically produced substances such as amino acids and proteins.
Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance, which is called the antigen, to provoke an immune response.
A Clinical Research Associate (CRA) can also be called a Monitor, a Clinical Monitor, a Trial Monitor or a Medical Monitor. The title will vary from company to company. The job description will be the same. A CRA is an individual employed by a pharmaceutical or medical device manufacturer, by a contract research organization (CRO) usually acting on a sponsor’s behalf
FluBlÃ˜kâ„¢, or recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA), is a patented subunit influenza vaccine
Matrix protein (M)2 is an Influenza A, type III membrane protein with an extracellular domain (ectodomain of M2 [M2e]) of 23 amino acid residues, which is strongly conserved across virus strains. M2 fulfills an important biological function in the life cycle of the Influenza A virus and has been a target of antiviral drugs. M2e has generated much interest as a potential vaccine target, and a clinical M2e vaccine trial was initiated in 2007.
“The trials showed that the risk of infection was reduced in those who received the RTSS malaria vaccine. Investigators estimated that vaccine efficacy in the first year was 34 percent, and in the second year after a booster dose, 47 percent.